There are many reasons to use custom-made isotope labeled organic molecules of all types. Isotopic labeling of compounds is a non-radioactive method of labeling, provides site-specific investigation of structures, makes molecules easily detectable by mass spectrometry and NMR, maintaining the physico-chemical properties of the target molecule, and is cost-effective and easy to use. Most commonly used isotopes are 2H (D), 13C, and 15N.
Biosynthetic isotopic labeling of compounds is an alternative to pure synthetic methodologies for isotope labeling. By uniformly labeling all carbon and nitrogen atoms with D, 13C and 15N, a single protein sample can provide a plethora of structural information such as dihedral distances and angles. Labeled compounds such as 13C-labeled glucose or glycerol and 15N-labeled ammonium chloride or ammonium chlorate can be readily incorporated into the growth media for protein expression. However, through selective labeling, carbon precursors containing only 13C-labeled sites can be incorporated into protein expression media. In the process, these sites are then converted, through enzymatic pathways, to predictable positions in amino acids, ending in selective and specific labeling of proteins.
In its gas form, deuterium can be introduced into organic molecules by catalytic reduction. When site-specific labeling is not necessary, deuterium can be catalytically added to carbon-carbon double or triple bonds, such as in the synthesis of chiral acetic acid (TDH*CCO2H). Through reduction, 2H can also be introduced with isotopic hydride by transition metal-mediated exchange. For methyl groups Alanine, Leu, and Val, site-specific 2H labeling is most commonly used and serves as an excellent way to investigate the dynamics of proteins and DNA.
Isotope labeled chemistries currently synthesized by IsoSciences catalog can be found here.If you are unable to find the desired labeled molecule in our catalog, please contact us by email or phone (610-337-3762) we will be more than happy to provide a quote on custom synthetic work.